Two short items of interest in the Weekblad chronicle Willem’s move to the Pella area. The first was dated October 5, 1900: “Wm. van Wijk, from near New Sharon, will be moving 1 ½ miles NE of Pella. He bought a 60-acre farm there for $3,600.” The second occurred on November 30: “Wm. van Wijk, who had lived near New Sharon for 14 years, will be moving this week to his farm by Pella.” This latter article was incorrect in stating that he had lived in the New Sharon area for 14 years, as it was actually closer to four.
The farm that was purchased was a 60 acre tract of ground located in Section 2 of Lake Prairie South Township, Marion County. The present address is 759 240th Place and is still a 60-acre tract of land with a homestead, now owned by Glenn and Clarice Meinders. This farm was right next to the Plainview Country School, which is where the children attended. It is speculated that this became “home” only for the younger Van Wyk children, with the older ones either married or continuing to work out as hired hands on the farms they were at prior to the move. Jan and Hendrika were already married, with Guy marrying Gertrude Van Arkel in 1901 and Dick marrying Anna Hoksbergen in 1902. Guy and Dick stayed in Mahaska County and established themselves there right alter their marriages but eventually moved to Jasper County.
Both the Weekblad newspaper account and the 1901 Marion County plat map with Willem’s name on the 60 acres indicate that this was a true purchase of land. But the Marion County Recorder’s Office does not reflect this fact – the property was owned by a certain John G. Thomassen from 1894 to 1906 with no record of the land ever being transferred to Willem. John G. Thomassen was a Pella land speculator and land agent, owning and representing dozens and dozens of farms in the area. He typically financed these purchases with private money, with this Marion County farm having mortgages on it from Cornelis Brunia, H. H. Viersen, and Sarah Niemeyer at various times during Thomassen’s ownership. It is speculated that Thomassen sold this property to Willem on a contract, with this contract never being recorded in the Recorder’s Office. This practice seems very unusual and somewhat suspect today and, surprisingly, would repeat itself once again in Willem’s life. One wonders if the 1894 De Goey judgment in Knoxville had anything to do with not recording the contract because, since the land was also in Marion County, this judgment would immediately attach to the land.
While in this area, Willem met and married Taekje Tigchelaar Bontekoe, with her children later using the last name of De Bont. The details of their courtship are not known, but it has the makings of a primitive “Brady Bunch” episode with Taekje having five children with four still at home and Willem having twelve children with at least six children still at home. There are some other noteworthy items about the marriage, also. While both Taekje and Willem were immigrants from the Netherlands, they came from totally different areas. Taekje was from the heart of Friesland, where the Frisian language was in constant use and would have been her mother tongue although she would have been required to use Dutch in school. In fact, the federal census of 1910 shows her unable to speak English, with the language spoken as “Holland-Frisian.” This is in contrast to Willem who, while also unable to speak English, reflects his spoken language as “Holland-Dutch.” The De Bont children were likely tri-lingual, speaking Frisian, Dutch, and English with ease. This language difference was probably just one of the background contrasts between Taekje’s Frisian roots and Willem’s Noord Brabant/Haarlemmermeer roots. Another item of note was the striking 12-year age difference, with Willem being 51 years old and Taekje 39 years old. It is easy to wonder if part of the motivation of marriage was for the union of two needy souls who needed some additional security in their lives – the aging widower Willem who still had a large family to raise, and the penniless widow Taekje whose economic future was very bleak for a single woman in those times. Early deaths of their first spouses were a constant reminder to both Willem and Taekje of the uncertainty of life, with many medical advances that we take for granted today still needing to be discovered. Because of this and the high infant mortality rate, the average life expectancy of a person born in the United States in 1900 was still only 48 years old.
Rev. Cornelius De Haai signed the marriage certificate filed at the Marion County Recorder’s Office, certifying that Willem Van Wyk and Taekje Bontekoe were married by him in Pella on January 6, 1903. However, the good Dominee was probably off one month on his dates, as the marriage license was issued on February 4, 1903. Later court testimony would acknowledge a February 6 marriage date. Ben Tigchelaar, Taekje’s brother, gave the affidavit to the Clerk of Court that Willem and Taekje were of competent age and condition to marry.
Marriage certificate of Willem van Wyk and Teakje Bontekoe (February 6, 1903)
Despite the large combined family already, Willem and Taekje began having children of their own. Hendrina, more familiarly known as Irene, was born just a year later, in March of 1904. After so many boys, Willem finally had the opportunity to honor his mother, Hendriena van der Beek van Wijk. She likely received word of her new namesake granddaughter via the mail, as she died in Haarlemmermeer on May 29, 1905, at the age of 85. The next child to come to this union was Ben, who was born in 1905. He was named after Taekje’s brother Ben, also known as Barend, who had witnessed Willem and Taekje’s marriage just two years earlier.
At the beginning of 1904, the Van Wyks sold their Marion County farm and moved about over two miles east / four miles north to Section 8 in Richland Township in Mahaska County, with Elk Creek running through this land, in the neighborhood generally known as Sandridge. This farm is presently owned by the Hugen Trust. The timing of this move corresponds with Irene’s March 1904 birth, as that event was recorded in the Mahaska County birth records. No sale was ever recorded in the courthouse of the Marion County farm and no purchase was ever recorded in the courthouse of the Mahaska County farm, with this latter farm being owned by the same land trader John G. Thomassen who had also owned the Marion County land. Thomassen had bought this farm in 1892, sold it in 1893, and then bought it again in 1901. During this time he again borrowed from individuals, with mortgages from J. J. Sheehy, G. L. Huiskamp, and H. H. Viersen being placed on the farm. This new farm more than doubled the size of the Van Wyk acreage, going from 60 acres to 160 acres, with the reality of more mouths to feed likely prompting this move. The original Van Wyk family of all boys was getting older and stronger, and there also was the additional workforce of the Bontekoe boys.
In 1905 the State of Iowa conducted a special state census and this is the best documentation of the combined family as it shows Willem and Taekje with John Will, Henry, William, Tenis (called Martin in the census), Harry, and Neal Van Wyk from Willem’s first marriage; Dora, Tunis, Jerry, and Peter Bontekoe from Taekje’s first marriage, and Hendrina Van Wyk from the new combined marriage. While Ben Van Wyk was also born in 1905, he had not yet appeared on the scene at the time of the census. Even though the Van Wyks were in Mahaska County, they were close enough to Pella to have a Pella address. The census reported that the value of the farm was $9,500, and that Willem owed $8,000 in debt against it. This value was a little surprising as later information would reveal that he had paid $12,000 for the farm just the year before.
During this time Willem would have experienced his first loss from the upcoming generation— granddaughter Emma Van Wyk. She was the daughter of Dick and Anna Van Wyk, and died around Dick and Anna were living in Prairie Township, Mahaska County, at the time of the 1905 State census, probably on the farm or even in the same household as John and Bertha Johnson. Emma was buried in Appel Cemetery, which is just southeast of Peoria. As was often the custom in that era, Dick and Anna’s next girl was also named Emma.
In 1905 the youngest member of the original Van Wyk family, Neal, would have been 13 years old; the youngest member of the original Bontekoe family, Peter, would have been 8 years old. The younger Van Wyk and Bontekoe step-children had similar ages and generally got along quite well together. In the earlier years, as the older brothers were “hired out” to neighboring farmers, the younger Van Wyk boys Neal and Harry often recalled staying in the house alone while their father and the middle-aged brothers would go out to cut wood and do other farm-related tasks. Until Taekje came into the picture, Neal and Harry seldom saw womenfolk and were very shy around girls and women. They were also quick to bring the dog inside the house when gypsies or Indians came through the area, because they were convinced that their dog would be stolen for a meal for either of these two groups if they kept the dog at large. The 1905 census is the last time we see Dora Bontekoe officially recorded with the Van Wyk family. But the reason for this is not because of her getting married or working out at a neighboring farm family. Dora’s health continued to decline, believed to be caused by the disease of epilepsy or diabetes, either of which had few treatment options at the time, particularly at the local level. A notice in the March 17, 1905, Weekblad reports that Willem brought Dora to the Catholic Hospital (now known as Mercy) in Des Moines, to be under the care of Dr. J.T. Priestly. Travelling with them was Dr. Quire from Taintor, with this doctor also practicing in the Peoria area. Dora’s condition worsened to the point where she was judged to be “Insane,” which is how she was reported on all census records since that time. She was moved to the State Hospital in Mt. Pleasant, where she died in 1918 at age 28.
The 1905 census revealed one other surprise. Also living in Richland Township in Mahaska County was Willem’s brother and sister-in-law, the familiar Willem Huibert and Aletta Cornelia Van’t Sant. Once again, it is difficult to believe that this was purely coincidental, that the Van’t Sant family would again be living in close proximity to the Van Wyks. However, this would be the last time this would happen, as the Van’t Zant family would then go to Jasper County while the Van Wyks stayed in Marion County. With Willem now remarried, perhaps Aletta Cornelia no longer felt the strong responsibility to be nearby to help out in the care of her deceased sister’s children. Unfortunately, the final Richland Township event for the Van Wyk family was not at all pleasant. The 1894 judgment in favor of John De Goey and against Willem Van Wyk came to a head. This turned out to be a three-county affair, as John De Goey was still living in Jasper County, the judgment was recorded in Marion County, and Willem was living in Mahaska County. On September 21, 1904, John De Goey began the process of enforcing his judgment by asking the Marion County District Court to execute a levy. These levy instructions were transferred to the Mahaska County Sheriff, E. L. Valentine. Sheriff Valentine travelled from Oskaloosa to the far northwestern reaches of the county to personally serve papers on Willem and Taekje, with this occurring on September 22, 1904. After posting written notices in three public places, and publishing these notices twice in the Oskaloosa Herald, he scheduled a Sheriff’ s Sale of the land to take place on the Mahaska County courthouse steps on October 31, 1904.
Marion County Court House, Knoxville, Iowa (left) where De Goey began his judgement against Willem,
and Mahaska County Court House, Oskaloosa, Iowa (right). Site of Sheriff’s sale
Not only did the levy encompass the real estate, but it also encompassed the Van Wyk personal property. As a result, on September 24 Sheriff Valentine went back to the Van Wyk residence, took possession of all the livestock he could find, and delivered them to the property of Jerrel Carver for safekeeping. He dutifully made a receipt of all the livestock and posted them in the paper for sale, even to the extent of including the horses’ names of Doll, Fan, Clyde (a mare!), and Polly. Two colts, five cows, eleven steers, and seven calves rounded out the livestock total. The sale of these animals was also to be conducted on October 31 at the door of the courthouse in Oskaloosa.
Ad for two Sheriff’s sales. One for sale of Willem’s real estate and the other for sale of his personal property
to be sold on the steps of the Mahaska Co. Court House, Oskaloosa, IA
However, before this sale of personal property happened, a flurry of legal actions ensued. First of all, on September 27, William Lanser filed a notice of claim on this livestock, stating that he had a chattel mortgage on it as he had lent money to the Van Wyks. Then on September 29, W. H. Keating, an Oskaloosa attorney hired by the Van Wyks, filed a notice of claim of exempt property, stating that Taekje’s half interest in the property was not subject to a Sheriff’s Sale. And on October 1, John William Van Wyk filed a notice of claim on the property, likely stating that some of the livestock taken was actually his. These actions caused some of the property to be released per an affidavit from the Sheriff, with the De Goey attorneys assenting. In addition to the claim, William Lanser also filed a lawsuit against De Goey and Sheriff Valentine in Mahaska County District Court for damages incurred in retaining this personal property, using W. H. Keating as his attorney. According to the testimony of W. H. Keating, Taekje was also contemplating a similar lawsuit. On the scheduled day of the sale, the attorneys all agreed that in return for William Lanser dropping his lawsuit and Taekje not filing hers, all livestock would be returned to the Van Wyks with the Sheriffs Sale of the land to continue.
This release of the livestock was likely the result of a September 28 court action, known as a judgment debtor exam, requested by L. A. Wells, the Newton attorney of John De Goey. This action allows a creditor to question a debtor about his assets. Remember, that no contract had ever been filed in the Recorder’s Office documenting that Willem had a true interest in land, although the Treasurer’s Office had been notified to send him the real estate tax statements. Therefore, even though a levy had been put in place, De Goey had no idea if this levy actually encompassed real estate.
Attorneys W. H. Keating of Oskaloosa and P. G. Gaass of Pella were representing Willem when he was put on the stand, and their affidavits in the matter shed a considerable amount of light on the matter. Since Willem could not speak English, all of his testimony was given through an interpreter. This gave attorney Gaass an advantage, as he could understand both Willem’s original testimony in Dutch and how it was interpreted from the translator. In addition, Carrie Pickrell was assigned to take down all the testimony in shorthand.
This testimony from Willem gave two startling facts:
- That prior to his marriage to Taekje (both having very little wealth and both having families) they agreed to many but she refused to enter into the contract of marriage unless Willem would consent to give her one-half of all of his property—both real and personal—so that in case of anything happening to him, she would have one-half of the property.
- That Willem had never told Taekje about the judgment against him, because he was of the impression that the judgment was fully paid. This was because some years ago, De Goey had taken all of his property from him, which Van Wyk thought was sufficient to satisfy the judgment. Being unable to read or write the English language, he was made to understand at the time of the sale of the personal property by De Goey, that the judgment had been fully paid and satisfied. He now believed that said De Goey never credited him with the full amount of said sale on the judgment as no report of the sale was ever made to him.
This last point indicates why Willem may have had some bitterness and animosity against De Goey. Later testimony from De Goey would state that at the time of the 1894 judgment, Willem was a single man “and had no money or property whatsoever.” Was that the reason that Willem left Jasper County so abruptly in 1894, because all his property already had been taken by De Goey, with the judgment amount covering the shortfall? Or did pressure from De Goey have something to do with the two public auctions that Willem had in 1900 while living in the New Sharon area?
This hearing resulted in another piece of information coming in the open: The judge ordered that Willem produce the unrecorded Mahaska County farmland contract with him as buyer and John G. Thomassen as seller. The contract was dated February 27, 1904, between Willem Van Wyk as buyer and John Thomassen as seller. While Taekje did sign her name at the bottom of the contract, she was never listed at the top as a buyer and an owner of the property, somewhat contradicting the earlier statement by Willem that she was to have a half-interest in all his property. The sale price was $12,000, with a $4,000 down payment. It was later revealed that this down payment was not in cash, but was the value of the equity of Willem’s 60-acre farm in Marion County. Because that farm had never been placed in Willem’s name and was still in the name of Thomassen, this down payment ended up being just a mathematical exercise. The annual interest rate on the remaining $8,000 contract principal balance was 5.5%, to be paid each March 1, with $800 principal to be paid on March 1, 1908, and the final $7,200 principal to be paid on March 1, 1909. The contract was notarized by George Thomassen, a Pella attorney who was John Thomassen’s brother. Because this contract now came in to public view and proved that the Van Wyks had a legal interest in the land, even though that interest had not been recorded at the courthouse, it gave John De Goey enough confidence that the land itself would satisfy his 1894 judgment, which made him agree to release his levy on the livestock.
Tillie’s Affidavit filed with Sheriff’s Office
The Sheriff’s Sale of the land, scheduled for October 31, continued as planned. However, two other interesting legal actions took place prior to the sale:
- Taekje signed an affidavit on September 30 and filed it with Sheriff Valentine of Mahaska County. She reiterates William’s statement at the judgment debtor hearing, that one of her conditions for marrying him was that he give her one-half of all his property. She states that her one-half share is therefore exempt from the Sheriff’s Sale, and that her real estate interest be appraised and set off in such a manner that would include the dwelling and improvements.
- Another notification was given to Sheriff Valentine by W. H. Keating and George G. Gaass, attorneys for Willem Van Wyk. This gave a plan of sale, to sell the 160 acre farm in 40-acre increments, starting with one 40-acre tract, and adding additional 40-acre tracts to it until the farm sold. The Van Wyks provided a colored map, showing which 40-acre tract contained their homestead, and demanded that this be sold last—“if you think it advisable.” This notification also demanded that the bidders be informed that the property being sold is only the equity of Willem Van Wyk being sold, whatever equity that may be; that Willem’s wife Taekje claims a half interest in the property, that John Thomassen holds the land as he conveyed it only under a contract with no deed being made for it, and that there is nothing of record to show that Willem Van Wyk has any interest whatsoever in the land.
On October 31, 1904, the Van Wyk real estate was sold on the Mahaska County courthouse steps. A crowd had gathered and evidence shows that the Sheriff did mention that he was selling only the interest of Willem Van Wyk, and that he offered the property in 40 acre tracts. When he offered the property as a whole, there was only one bidder: John De Goey. He bid the exact amount owed on the judgment, $1,934.98:
- $985.50 Amount of 1894 Original Judgment
- 783.12 10 years of interest
- 9.30 Fees for poster and newspaper printing
- 80.30 Fees to Marion County Clerk of Court
- 76.76 Fees to Mahaska County Sheriff
- $1,934.98 Total Bid by John De Goey
By purchasing the property, John De Goey simply offset his judgment against the purchase price—his only out-of-pocket amount was for the fees. Noticeably absent from the bidding process was John Thomassen, the contract seller of the property, who would have had a keen interest in what was happening to the land. Later testimony would reveal that he had left for Washington and Oregon in June of 1904 and, when he came back in November, likely much to his surprise he found out about the Sheriff’s Sale.
As this judgment levy and corresponding Sheriff’s Sale was a type of foreclosure action, there is generally a redemption period for the defendants to try to scrape enough money together to redeem the judgment so that the real estate can be retained. The redemption period was one full year, so the Sheriff’s Deed was scheduled to be issued to John De Goey on October 31, 1905. In the meantime, the Sheriff issued a temporary Sheriff’s Certificate to John De Goey. Knowing that this property was subject to a contract to Thomassen, he had W. A. Willamson, cashier and part owner of the Bank of Reasnor, send a check to John Thomassen for the March 1, 1905, interest payment on the contract, and gave the Sheriff’ s Certificate to the bank.
At the time the Bank of Reasnor was a private bank, not subject to regulation of any kind, and often in these instances, the lines between the banks and their owners became quite blurry. The check was not from De Goey, but from the bank itself. Because of the willingness of the bank to do this, it appears that De Goey may have had some other financial issues working in the background and the bank saw this as a means to strengthen its collateral position. John De Goey was obviously quite certain (as was the bank) that in a few months he would be in possession of a farm that should be worth $12,000 and subject only to a contract balance of $8,000 to Thomassen.
However, John Thomassen, seeing that somebody else was going to obtain the equity in the farm, had other plans, and these plans involved his attorney brother George J. Thomassen. On October 28, three days before the Sheriff’s Deed was to be issued, George J. Thomassen and John J. Thomassen filed a lawsuit against John De Goey, the Bank of Reasnor, and E. L. Valentine, the Sheriff of Mahaska County. The person accepting service for the Bank of Reasnor was its cashier, W. A. Williamson. This lawsuit asked for the court to issue an injunction to halt the Sheriff from issuing the deed to De Goey, and to restore the title to the farm in the name of the Thomassen plaintiffs.
The court papers shed some light on the events that took place. First of all, it elaborates on the role of the new player involved, George J. Thomassen, which again involved the Van Wyks. The petition stated that two days before the lawsuit was filed, Taekje gave a Quit Claim Deed to George Thomassen for her one-half interest in the Mahaska County farm, for the price of $100, with George now therefore a one-half owner of the equity in the property, taking Taekje’s place. John G. Thomassen then stated that the Van Wyks had voluntarily surrendered the farm back to him by informing him they were not going to make any payments on the unrecorded contract and, therefore, the land again his to do with as he saw fit.
On October 28, 1905, the Mahaska County District Court did issue the injunction as requested by the Thomassens and halted the Sheriff from issuing the Sheriff’s Deed. It also scheduled a trial to be held on December 7. In the meantime, the defendants, who were represented by L. A. Wells and the Lacey law firm out of Oskaloosa, filed a motion on November 17 requesting that the injunction be dissolved and the Sheriff’s Deed be issued. The trial was eventually held on January 30, 1906, and both sides were heard. Willem Van Wyk was supposed to be a witness for the Thomassen plaintiffs, but they never officially subpoenaed him. They reported that they had purchased a train ticket for him, but that he didn’t show up on account of a sick child. On January 31, 1906, Judge W. G. Clements rendered the verdict: the claim of De Goey was superior to the claim of the Thomassens. He ordered the Sheriff to issue the Sheriff’s Deed to John De Goey and noted that this deed would wipe out all claims that Willem Van Wyk, Taekje Van Wyk, and George J. Thomassen ever had in the property. John G. Thomassen, as contract seller, still retained the rights of the remaining balance of what was owed on the contract.
On the day of the court decision, Sheriff E. L. Valentine did what the Court told him to do—issue a Sheriff’s Deed to John De Goey. The very next day, John De Goey issued a Warranty Deed to W. A. Williamson, with the deed stating that the sale price of the farm was $5,000. The swiftness of this property exchange indicates that John De Goey did indeed have some other financial dealings going on with Williamson and/or the Bank of Reasnor. In their court pleadings, the Thomassens repeatedly referred to De Goey as being insolvent, but offered no evidence to back that up. Perhaps De Goey agreed to exchange the $5,000 in farm equity as payment for $5,000 that he owed Williamson and/or the Bank of Reasnor. As there was still $8,000 owed on the contract to Thomassen, De Goey and Williamson must have believed that the farm was now worth $13,000 in order to agree to the $5,000 sale price.
This court decision did not set well with attorney George J. Thomassen who had represented both himself and his brother as plaintiffs. He filed an appeal of the Mahaska County decision that went all the way to the Iowa Supreme Court, using attorney W. H. Keating out of Oskaloosa for additional legal support. The appeal and answer was ﬁled in Des Moines during the Supreme Court’s September term of 1906. It did not go well for Thomassen, as on February 11, 1907, the appeal was in no uncertain terms denied. The Supreme Court was particularly critical of the argument that Taekje and Willem could deed back their farmland/contract interest to escape the De Goey levy and judgment. These two comments were written by Supreme Court Justice J. Weaver in his opinion: “The attempt of the plaintiff George J. Thomassen, to trace title through the wife of William Van Wyk has no support in the evidence, and we need not further consider it.” And “to hold that whenever a levy is made upon an equity in land held by the debtor under contract, the seller and purchaser may by mutual agreement wipe out the contract and defeat the levy, would be to open an easy and effective avenue to gross fraud.” This justice concluded his opinion with a statement that somewhat mocked the effort of attorney George Thomassen: “Counsel for appellant has favored us with a very elaborate and ingenious brief of 57 distinct legal propositions, fortifying it with an array of numerous authorities. It is manifestly impracticable to take the time or space to discuss the cases cited. We have examined them all and find nothing in them inconsistent with the conclusion hereinbefore announced.”
Summary of the Iowa Supreme Court Case in which Willem lost the Mahaska County farm to John De Goey (click to enlarge)
With this defeat at the State Supreme Court level, the Thomassens had no other alternatives. To “clean up” the title to the land, George Thomassen and his wife gave a Quit Claim Deed to W. A. Williamson on September 1, 1908. John Thomassen had already given Williamson a Warranty Deed to this property earlier that year on January 28. However, because the court ruled that John Thomassen retained his rights as a contract seller, he was able to collect all of the remaining amount that was still owed him on the contract, which appears to be $7,400. Thomassen did this by collecting $900 in cash from W. A. Williamson, and then had Williamson assume two of his mortgage debts on the property, which totaled $6,500.
Throughout all this, one wonders if Willem and Taekje, with their inability to speak and read English, really understood what was going on. Since they had effectively paid $4,000 as a down payment for their Mahaska County farm purchase in February of 1904 by turning in their Marion County farm to Thomassen, wouldn’t they have been ahead by redeeming the De Goey judgment that was less than $2,000, rather than losing the whole farm via a Sheriff’ s Deed? Did they not have any money to redeem the judgment, or did they get bad advice from the Thomassens? John Thomassen testified that Willem moved off the farm around November 1 of 1905, and stated that Willem “said he had been served with notice, and he was afraid he would be put out and set out in the road with his family.” I told him I thought he had “better stay where he was; better not move until he was forced to, there was no reason why he should move. I would see that he was protected. . . .I asked him to stay but he was afraid he would be put out, and the neighbors made him afraid.” There is a strong possibility that Willem’s actions to aid the Thomassens were influenced by his long-ago dealings with John De Goey. It is somewhat ironic that despite the bitter battles between them here on earth, the final resting places of Willem Van Wijk and John De Goey are not all that far from each other in Hewitt Cemetery near Galesburg.
One thing is certain–it is particularly doubtful that the Van Wyks realized that part of their historic legacy would be having their names and actions come under scrutiny in a ruling by the Supreme Court of Iowa. In any event, it is obvious they were informed about the one-year redemption period following the Sheriffs Sale, which meant they could continue living on the farm without any repercussions from De Joey. This gave Willem and Taekje time to prepare and plan for their next stage of life, which would bring them to the other side of Pella.